Operating Principle of a Pelton Turbine
Transparent operating area1
* Adjustable nozzle cross-section1
* Loading by band brake
Water turbines are turbomachines utilising water power. The Pelton turbine is part of the free-jet turbines resp. impulse turbines which convert the pressure energy of water into kinetic energy entirely in the control device. During the conversion, the water jet is accelerated in a nozzle and directed onto the vanes of the Pelton wheel tangential. The water jet is redirected by approximately 180° in the vanes. The impulse of the water jet is transmitted to the Pelton wheel.
Operating Principle of a Pelton Turbine is the model of a Pelton turbine demonstrating the function of an impulse turbine.
The experimental unit consists of the Pelton wheel, a needle nozzle used as control device, a band brake for loading the turbine and a housing with a transparent front panel. The transparent cover enables you to observe the water flow, the wheel and the nozzle during operation. You can modify the nozzle cross-section and thus the flow rate by adjusting the nozzle needle.
The turbine torque is determined by force measurement on a band brake and is read on spring balances. For measuring the rotational speed, a non-contact speed sensor, e.g., A manometer shows the water pressure at the turbine inlet.
The experimental unit is positioned on the working surface of the Base Module in a simple and safe manner. The water supply and flow rate measurement are provided. Alternatively, the experimental unit can be supplied by the laboratory supply.
The well-structured instructional material sets out the fundamentals and provides a step-by-step guide through the experiments.
Learning Objectives / Experiment
-Design and function of a Pelton turbine
-Determination of torque, power and efficiency
-Graphical representation of characteristic curves for torque, power and efficiency
1. Function of a Pelton turbine
2. Transparent front panel for observing the operating area
3. Loading the turbine by use of the band brake
4. Adjustable nozzle needle for setting different nozzle cross-sections
5. Marking on brake drum for non-contact speed measurement
6. Instruments: spring balances for determining the torque, manometer shows pressure at turbine inlet
7. Flow rate determination Base Module
8. Water supply using Base Module or via laboratory supply
- output: 5W at 500min-1, approx. 30L/min, H=2m
vane width: 33,5mm
external diameter: 132mm
- jet diameter: 10mm
- braking force (spring balance): 10N
- pressure: 0…1bar
Dimensions and Weight
Weight: approx. 15kg
Required for Operation
Closed water circuit or water supply, drainage